Sri Lanka is a tropical island situated close to the southern tip of India. The bird life of Sri Lanka is very rich for its size, and about 433 species have been recorded. In addition to the many resident birds, a considerable number of migratory species winter in the country to escape their northern breeding grounds.
233 species are resident, of which the most important are the 26 endemics. The other resident species are also found in the adjacent Indian mainland, but over 80 have developed distinct Sri Lankan races. Some of these races are very different in their plumage characteristics from the related forms in India.
Bird distribution in Sri Lanka is largely determined by its climatic zones. The dry zone is largest of the three, covering more than half of the area of the island, with a prolonged dry and hot period and only one monsoon (the northeast monsoon from October to January).
The wet zone, with two monsoons, is in the southwestern quarter of the island, where the few remaining rain forests are f